Benefit/Risk Ration Techniques
It is difficult to make a classification of the different techniques based on their benefit/risk ratio.
The effectiveness of procedures can be assessed in terms of weight loss (40 to 80 per cent of excess weight) and their complexity and risk profile (postoperative complications, risk of nutritional consequences and operative mortality – 0 to 1 per cent). Gastric banding is the intervention presenting the least risk but it is also the least effective.
Early morbidity is mainly linked to digestive perforations and leakage, occlusions, bleeding, and thromboembolic and respiratory complications (such atelectasis).
In the longer term, complications may be surgical (band slippage and/or pouch dilation, anastomotic stenosis, occlusion, migration of the band), nutritional (in particular following metabolic surgery) or psychological.
Surgery for extreme obesity has helped many people lose more weight than is possible by diet, and maintain that weight loss.
Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes — 5-Year Outcomes
New England Journal of Medicine 2017;376:641-51.